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Projects

BACKLUND participates in national and international projects and in networking and has experiences with applications, management, reporting and presentation.

"On-Site Wastewater Treatment Research" "Assessment of disposal options for treated wastewater from single houses on low permeability subsoils".
Research Project "Science, Technology, Research & Innovation for the Environment" (STRIVE).

BACKLUND take part in the 3-year Research Project (2011 - 20143) in Ireland for the Irish EPA.

Arne Backlund is an external Expert Member of the Project Team in co-operation with 3 Irish Universities and contributes with Expert Knowledge about Willow Evapotranspiration Systems and Sustainable Sanitation / Ecological Sanitation.

"Water saving technologies to reduce water consumption and wastewater production in Irish households" STRIVE Report Series no 108     http://www.epa.ie/pubs/reports/research/water/watersavingtechnologiestoreduce waterconsumptionandwastewaterproduction.html  and "Improving the feasibility of on-site wastewater treatment systems in areas of low permeability subsoils by means of water saving technologies" The 11th IWA  Conference on Small Water & Wastewater Systems and Sludge Management.

Appendix to wastewater planning for Klinteby/Karrebækstorp. Assessment regarding willow evapotranspiration systems regarding technology and economy. Project and consultancy work for Niras A/S and Næstved municipality. 2010 - 2011.

Willow Evapotranspiration Systems compared to Traditional Wastewater Sewage Systems for rural houses as foreseen in the approved Appendix to current wastewater plans in Næstved municipality from 2009.

The project was carried out for NK-Spildevand A/S in co-operation with Nielsen & Risager A/S in 2009 - 2010 and reported in:  NK-Spildevand A/S, Nielsen & Risager A/S, Backlund ApS 2010: Statement - Willow evapotranspiration systems as an alternative to planned sewage systems in " Appendix to existing wastewater planning" Naestved 2010 (In Danish).

BACKLUND participation in Ecological Sanitation and Biomass Energy projects  carried out for the Danish Environmental Protection Agency (funded through the "Action Plan for the Promotion of Ecological Urban Renewal and Wastewater Treatment" and the European Union 1998 - 2003 (funded through the FAIR-programme). Contact BACKLUND for further information and future co-operation in international projects in developed as well as in developing countries.

M226-0121 Improved Knowledge Concerning Diverting Toilet Technology to Enable Reuse of Energy Ressources and Nutrients in Humane Urine and Human Faeces

The project was initiated and carried out 1998 – 2002 by BACKLUND with Arne Backlund as project manager. Basis for the project is that diverting toilet technology contains interesting system components for separate collection of urine and faeces. The system components shall, however – be able to collect the residuals in a function stable way and in a concentration suitable for treatment in e.g. biogas – and wet composting plants as well as for use as fertilizer in agricultural production.

The project reflects on the historical development away from the use of diverted human residuals as being merely an expressed reflex out of a removal paradigm rather than a reflected development regarding recirculation of nutrients and organic material to agriculture. There is need for qualitative modernisation within wastewater handling. New technologies as well as new concepts are needed to design the wanted human fertilizer products. There must be a readiness in the social functional systems and institutions to eventually redesign structural conditions like regulative and economical management for this process when required.

Four selected investigation areas are addressed. The first concerns investigation and consideration regarding establishment of a source diverting vacuum toilet in a housing area in Hannover, Germany with 32 source collecting vacuum toilets. The second is investigating the efficiency to separate faeces and paper from water after using source collecting or source diverting water-flushing toilets. The third area focuses on the functioning and running of waterless urinals as an opportunity for collecting concentrated urine. The fourth concerns risks of blockages in the urine collection system of source diverting double flushing toilets and possibilities of avoiding or solving these problems. The investigations, methods and results are described in a report and in articles.  

Backlund, A. 2003: Improved Knowledge Concerning Diverting Toilet Technology to Enable Reuse of Energy Resources and Nutrients in Humane Urine and Human Faeces. Ecological Urban Renewal and Wastewater Treatment. The National Danish Environmental Protection Agency. Denmark. Sustainable Urban Renewal and Wastewater Treatment no. 37, 2003. On line publication. Report in Danish with an English summary. http://www2.mst.dk/Udgiv/publikationer/2003/87-7972-734-4/html/

Backlund, A. 2003: New Knowledge about Diverting and Separating Sanitary Technology. The Danish Environmental Protection Agency. Article in "New Knowledge" in Danish with an English summary.

M226-0024 Vacuum Toilets and Treatment of the Collected Material at Biogas Works or by Wet Composting                                                                         

The project was initiated and carried out 1998 – 2002.  In the project in the district of Nysted on Lolland, Denmark, two vacuum toilets of a new design were established in 2000. The toilets were installed as part of a project meant for illustrating the possibilities of recycling concentrations of "black" wastewater (wastewater from water closets) for agricultural purposes.

The project collected experience from the new toilet systems for detached houses and from earlier common vacuum systems in summer cottage areas on Lolland and Falster.

The new vacuum toilet systems for detached houses, which are continuously developed, have very low water and electricity consumptions. A great deal of the operating troubles connected to the earlier vacuum systems has been surmounted. Examinations indicate that vacuum toilets make it possible to collect a product applicable for co-treatment at a biogas and wet composting works.

The project also included experience from our neighbouring countries. Storstrøm County has initiated the project in co-operation with BACKLUND. The investigations, methods and results are described in a report and in articles.  

Holtze, A., Backlund, A. 2003: Vacuum Toilets and Treatment of the Collected Material at Biogas Works or by Wet Composting. The National Danish Agency of Environmental Protection. Denmark. Sustainable Urban Renewal and Wastewater Treatment no. 36, 2003. On line publication. Report in Danish with an English summary.        http://www2.mst.dk/udgiv/Publikationer/2003/87-7972-736-0/html/default.htm   

Holtze, A., Backlund, A. 2003: Vacuum Toilets Enables the Use of Energy and Nutrient content in Human Excreta after Treatment in Biogas or Wet Composting Plants. The Danish Environmental Protection Agency. Article in "New Knowledge" in Danish with an English summary.

M226-0029 Collection, Storage and Application of Urine from the "Møns Museumsgård" (The museum farmstead of Møn)  

 

In order to clarify how urine may be recycled in Denmark, the Møn Museum/the "Museumsgården", The Green Guide of Møn,  Storstrøm County and BACKLUND ( A & B BACKLUND ApS) has initiated the project "Collection, storage and application of urine from the Møns Museumsgård". Together they developed and planned the project. The project was carried out from 1998 – 2002.

 

The composition of the wastewater of the "Museumsgården" is a high quantity of urine and a small quantity of an undistinguished substance of wastewater, which makes the separation of urine by way of source segregation toilets and the utilization of nutrients reasonable. Contrary to a private house, there will be many different users of the toilets at a museum. This fact made it possible to test a diverting wastewater system under somewhat difficult circumstances.

 

One of the purposes of the project was to collect experience in the installation and use of a source diverting toilet system, including a waterless urinal, at the "Museumsgården" and to compare this to experience from Sweden. Another purpose was to examine the constituents of the urine, including whether the contents of nutrients, heavy metals, micro organisms and organic substances alien to the environment will change during storage.

 

Moreover, the collected urine was compared to other urine mixtures and fertilizers on the basis of these parameters. The toilet system of the "Museumsgården" was established in April 1999. Experience from the installation and operation has been collected during the opening seasons of 1999 and 2000, and partly during 2001. The investigations, methods and results are described in a report and in articles.  

Holtze, A., Backlund, A. 2002: Collection, Storage and Application of Urine from the Møn Museumsgård. The National Danish Environmental Protection Agency. Denmark. Sustainable Urban Renewal and Wastewater Treatment no. 23, 2002. On line publication. Report in Danish with an English summary.  http://www2.mst.dk/udgiv/publikationer/2002/87-7972-355-1/html/default.htm     

 

Backlund, A., Holtze, A. 2002: DIVERTING TOILET SYSTEMS  –  QUALITY OF COLLECTED URINE MIXTURE COMPARED TO OTHER ORGANIC FERTILIZERS DIVERTING. Proceedings of KALMAR ECO-TECH´01 - Leachate and Waste Water Treatment with High-Tech and Natural Systems. The 3rd international conference on the establishment of cooperation between companies/institutions in the Nordic Countries in the Baltic Sea Region November 26 to 28, 2001, Kalmar, Sweden. RVF´s UTVEKLINGSSATSNING DEPONERING Rapport nr. 2 2002.

Holtze, A., Backlund, A. 2003: Success with diverting toilet system at the Møn Farmstead Museum. The Danish Environmental Protection Agency. Denmark. Article in "New Knowledge" in Danish with an English summary.

  M226-0028 Composting and Maturing of Human Residual  Products Contained in Drained “Black” Wastewater

 

In the autumn of 1998 The County of Storstrøm in a co-operation with BACKLUND and a family in the district of Stubbekøbing  initiated the project "Composting and maturing of human residual products contained in drained "black" wastewater" in order to illustrate how human residual products, through composting, can be re-cycled in Denmark. Together they developed and planned the project.

 

One of the objects of the project was to collect experience on establishing and using a source diverting compost toilet system with water flush in a one-family house. Another object was to collect experience on using a source uniting compost toilet system including many users, experience from both operation staff and users. The intention was moreover to survey the composting process in the two toilet systems, e.g. in order to assess the quality of the compost material.

 

In the autumn of 1998, a new wastewater system was established in Stubbekøbing. The system was built up of system assemblies, commercially available in Denmark, but not yet tested in this country. The examinations of the system have been made during the period of November 1998 till October 2001. The examination was based on interviews and supervision and include the experience gained from the installation and working of the source diversion. Furthermore measurements were made from samples from the compost of the source diverting system. The analyses focused on the examination of the functionality and stability of the systems as well as on the investigation of the content of nutrients and special micro organisms in the compost material.The investigations, methods and results are described in a report and in articles.  

Holtze, A., Backlund, A. 2003: Composting and Maturing of Human Residual Products contained in Drained "Black" Wastewater". The National Danish Environmental Protection Agency. Denmark. Sustainable Urban Renewal and Wastewater Treatment no. 39, 2003. On line publication. Report in Danish with an English summary. http://www2.mst.dk/udgiv/publikationer/2003/87-7972-742-5/html/default.htm    

Holtze, A., Backlund, A. 2003: Composting - an alternative to conventional wastewater treatment in the countryside. The Danish Environmental Protection Agency. Denmark. Article in "New Knowledge" in Danish with an English summary.

  M226-0057 Ecological Handling of Urine, Faeces and Greywater from Allotment Gardens by means of Diverting (No-Mix) Toilet Systems and Evapotranspiration Willow Beds   

The project is the biggest ever carried out concerning dry diverting toilet systems in allotment gardens. It was initiated by the Danish Allotment Garden Association and BACKLUND and carried out in co-operation with Danish Technological University and the municipalities Ballerup and Herlev with Arne Backlund from A & B BACKLUND ApS as project manager in the period 1998 - 2002.

89 no-mix/diverting toilet systems without water flush were establish to test and demonstrate organic and sustainable sanitation systems as alternatives to systems with chemicals  or water flushing closets in combination with collecting tanks or sewers.

Many Danish gardeners have stopped using pesticides and wants to develop a more ecological behaviour also in sanitation. Water flush toilets in combination with collection tanks are very expensive resulting in economical and social problems. Trucks collecting wastewater destroys the often primitive roads. Establishing sewage is also very expensive and often resulting in different problems. Both solutions with water flushing toilets also works against the idea of allotment gardens as only being used half of the year and without some of the features known from permanent living.

No mixing toilets/diverting toilets were introduced to implement ecological and sustainable behaviour with a high sanitary comfort. Participation were free for organisations and members and the choice among a range of toilets and containers are free. Information about the systems, the handling and the ideas were presented on arrangements. The participants were free to contact the project manager concerning questions. The participants were responsible themselves for mounting and running of the systems. Written questionnaires played a minor role. Information about among others expectations and experiences with installation and running were collected. All participants were personally interviewed by phone or at a visit. Many of the installations were inspected.

Samples of collected urine were taken from 10 allotment gardens and analysed for among others nutrients, heavy metals, organic compounds and micro organisms. The participants delivering urine were especially interviewed concerning questions relevant for the quality of the urine. Samples of faeces/composted faeces were not taken and analysed in this but in another project. The investigations, methods and results are described in a report and in articles.  

Backlund, A., Eilersen, A. M., Larsen, I., Hagelskjær, M., Jensen, I.  2003:  Ecological Handling of Urine and Faeces in Allotment Garden Association by means of Diverting Toilet Systems without water flush. The National Danish Environmental Protection Agency. Denmark. Sustainable Urban Renewal and Wastewater Treatment no. 34, 2003. On line publication. Report in Danish with an English summary. http://www2.mst.dk/udgiv/publikationer/2003/87-7972-732-8/html/default.htm   

Backlund, A., Eilersen, A. M., Larsen, I., Hagelskjær, M., Jensen, I.  2003: Success with Diverting Toilets without Water Flush in Allotment Gardens. The National Danish Environmental Protection Agency). Article in "Ny Viden" 06/2003 in Danish with an English summary.                                   

Bregnhøj, H., Eilersen A.M., von Krauss, M.K., Backlund, A. 2003: Experiences with Ecosan in Danish Allotment Gardens and in Development Projects. Proceedings to 2nd International Symposium on ecological sanitation "ecosan - closing the loop", April 7 to 11, 2003 Lübeck, Baltic Sea, Germany. Page 29 - 36. http://www.gtz.de/ecosan/download/ecosan-Symposium-Luebeck-session-b.pdf

Larsen I., Backlund A. 2001: Ecological Sanitation - Sustainable Sanitation in Allotment Gardens in Denmark. Article in "The Hyphen" Nr. 27/2001.

Larsen I., Backlund A. 2003: Ecological Sanitation - Sustainable Sanitation in Allotment Gardens in Denmark. Part one. Article in  "The Hyphen" Nr. 31/2003.

Larsen I., Backlund A. 2003: Ecological Sanitation - Sustainable Sanitation in Allotment Gardens in Denmark. Part two. Article in  "The Hyphen" Nr. 31/2003.

M226-0025 Experience and Examinations from an Evapotranspiration Bed Without Discharge at Tappernøje   

Storstrøm County and BACKLUND have co-operated on a project to collect experience and to examine Denmark's earliest evapotranspiration bed with no outlet, situated in Storstrøm County. The bed has worked very stably since 1992.

The water balance has been calculated to estimate the evapo-transpiration of the bed. The content of nutrients in the wastewater, and nutrients, heavy metals and organic compounds in the soil have been analysed. Steam production of the willows has been estimated. BACKLUND is engaged in further development of the systems.The investigations, methods and results are described in a report and in articles.  

Holtze, A., Backlund, A. 2001: Experience and Investigations from a Willow Evapotranspiration Bed Without Outlet in Tappernøje, Denmark. The National Danish Environmental Protection Agency. Denmark. Sustainable Urban Renewal and Wastewater Treatment no. 17, 2001. On line publication. Report in Danish with an English summary. http://www2.mst.dk/Udgiv/publikationer/2001/87-7944-756-2/html/                                                                            

Backlund, A., Holtze, A. 2002: WILLOW EVAPOTRANSPIRATION BEDS WITHOUT DISCHARGE FOR HANDLING OF HOUSEHOLD WASTEWATER AND BIOMASS SHORT ROTATION WILLOW COPPICE FERTILISED WITH NUTRIENTS FROM HUMAN URINE MIXTURE. Proceedings of KALMAR ECO-TECH´01 - Leachate and Waste Water Treatment with High-Tech and Natural Systems. The 3rd international conferance on the establish November 26 to 28, 2001, Kalmar, Sweden. RVF´s UTVEKLINGSSATSNING DEPONERING Rapport nr. 2 2002.

Holtze, A., Backlund, A. 2002: Denmarks oldest Willow Evapotranspiration Bed  works excellent. The Danish Environmental Protection Agency. Denmark. Article in "Ny Viden" 02/2002 in Danish with an English summary.

M227-0029 Survival of indicator organism in composting toilets and by simulized central composting og human faeces    

The project is carried out in a co-operation between The Research Institution for Wood and Landscape, The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University from 2000 - 2003.

13 composting toilet systems are investigated, 7 in Denmark and 6 in Sweden. 5 of the systems are big batch composting systems and 8 are big continous systems. 

The user experiences with the systems and there opinions are gathered in an investigation. The function and ability to reduce pathogens are investigated through measuring of temperature and microbiological analysis from the compost material. The investigations, methods and results are described  in a report and in articles.

Møller, J., Backlund, A., Jørgensen, L.T., Forslund, A. og Dalsgaard, A. 2002: Survival of indicator organism in composting toilets and by simulized central composting og human faeces. The National Danish Agency of Environmental Protection. Denmark. Sustainable Urban Renewal and Wastewater Treatment no. 56, 2005. On line publication. Report in Danish with an English summary. http://www2.mst.dk/Udgiv/publikationer/2005/87-7614-811-4/html/               

FAIR-CT97-3947 Short-Rotation Willow Biomass Plantations Irrigated and Fertilised with Wastewaters 

The project was carried out during a 4-year period (1998-2002) with financial support from the EU FAIR Programme in the shape of field trials with recycling of pre-treated wastewater and diverted human urine mixed with water within plantations of willow species specifically selected for biomass production.

Experimental sites were established in Sweden (Roma), France (Orchies), Northern Ireland (Culmore) and Greece (Larissa). BACKLUND represented Denmark in the project and Arne Backlund was project manager for the urine trials on Gotland, Sweden.

The experimental sites were supplied with primary effluent from municipal treatment plants (Culmore and Larissa), stored industrial effluent from a chicory processing plant (Orchies), biologically treated and stored municipal wastewater (Roma) and human urine mixture from diverting low-flush toilets mixed with water (Roma). Application rates of the wastewaters or the urine mixture were equivalent to the calculated evapo­transpiration rate at each site. Wastewaters were also applied up to three times this value to evaluate any possible negative effects.

Estimations and evaluations were carried out mainly concerning: biomass growth, potential pest and diseases of the plantations, plant water requirements, fertilization effects of the wastewater, plant uptake of nutrients and heavy metals from applied wastewater, possible soil or groundwater impact, sanitary aspects, and potentials for removal in the soil-plant filter of nutrients and biodegradable organic material from applied wastewater.

The results clearly indicated that biomass production in young willow plantations could be enhanced substantially after recycling of wastewater resources. The impact on soil and ground­water of nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) and heavy metals (copper, zinc, lead and cadmium) was limited, even when the application of water and nutrients exceeded the plant requirements.

Also, the soil-plant system seemed to function as a natural treatment filter for pre-treated (primary settled) wastewater, with a treatment rate fully comparable to a tertiary effluent quality with regard to biodegrad­able organic material and eutrophying nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus). Introductory analyses of the costs of a wastewater irrigated willow plantation for bio-fuel production indicate that the benefits of the wastewater treatment per se appear to be greater than the benefits from the increased production of wood chips. The risks of con­tamination via faecal microorganisms of animals and humans seem possible to reduce or eliminate if proper precautions are taken.

The gathered opinion from the members of the multidisciplinary project team is that the concept of recycling wastewater or fractions of wastewater within willow plantations for com­bined energy production and wastewater treatment would be worth developing on a wider scale. Experiences from few full-scale facilities in Sweden are well in accordance with the findings outlined in this project.

The fact that wastewater could be treated at reasonable costs might encourage the municipal sector as well as the energy and agricultural industry in Europe to further expand the concept with increased willow plantation areas as a con­sequence. This would increase the opportunities for an over all better environment for generations to come. The investigations, methods and results are described in a report and in articles.

Backlund, A., Holtze, A. 2002: WILLOW EVAPOTRANSPIRATION BEDS WITHOUT DISCHARGE FOR HANDLING OF HOUSEHOLD WASTEWATER AND BIOMASS SHORT ROTATION WILLOW COPPICE FERTILISED WITH NUTRIENTS FROM HUMAN URINE MIXTURE. Proceedings of KALMAR ECO-TECH´01 - Leachate and Waste Water Treatment with High-Tech and Natural Systems. The 3rd international conferance on the establish November 26 to 28, 2001, Kalmar, Sweden. RVF´s UTVEKLINGSSATSNING DEPONERING Rapport nr. 2 2002.

Project group FAIR5-CT97-3947, 2003: Short-rotation Willow Biomass Plantations Irrigated and Fertilised with Wastewaters - Results from a 4-year multidisciplinary field project in Sweden, France, Northern Ireland and Greece supported by the EU-FAIR Programme. The National Danish Agency of Environmental Protection. Denmark. Sustainable Urban Renewal and Wastewater Treatment no. 37, 2003. On line publication. Report in English. http://www2.mst.dk/udgiv/publications/2003/87-7972-744-1/html/default_eng.htm  

Backlund, A. 2004: The Wastewater Is Treated While The Willow Grow. The National Danish Environmental Protection Agency. Denmark. Article in "Ny Viden" 01/2004 in Danish with an English summary.

.Last modified:  07.07.2016  backlund@backlund.dk   +45 60931453   Holmebjerg 21, DK-2950 Vedbæk Danmark